The main forms of moral education are: lesson, lecture, conversation, debate, sports films, stories, competitions, etc.
Lectures are designed to contribute to the formation of moral feelings and concepts of students and young athletes. In an accessible and entertaining way, to reveal the basic concepts of sports ethics, to help instill in those involved in a sense of pride in Russian sports and Russian athletes. Approximate topics of lectures: “Physical culture and sports in the life of remarkable people”, “Fundamentals of psychological training of young athletes.” Lectures are more successful if the audience is of the same age.
Conversation is a widespread form of moral education, allowing students to be included in it, asking questions, listening to opinions, giving facts, proving their convictions – this form leaves a deep impression and a mark on the soul and consciousness of young athletes. Approximate topics: “Ethics of a young athlete”, “On sports honor”, etc.
Disputes, being an active form of moral education, allows the formation of moral concepts and beliefs, and creates a good basis for education. Conviction, independence in judgments, assessments, adherence to principles. Participation in disputes of famous athletes, coaches increases the effectiveness of its educational impact. It is important at the same time to clearly think over the content and course of the dispute, to determine the nature of the issues discussed, to arm yourself with facts, examples worthy of imitation. Approximate topics: “Does sport help in learning?”, “The place of sport in the formation of an active life position”, etc.
Sports films, books about sports followed by discussion, during which students ardently and interestedly express their opinions, defend and defend their point of view, are a useful form of moral education. They help to clarify the moral concepts necessary in life, enrich moral experience.
Meetings with masters of sports, outstanding sports figures who can tell interesting and exciting stories about the preparation and participation in major Russian and international competitions. Communication with highly qualified foreign athletes and coaches, who provide interesting examples and facts that compare the views of Russian and foreign athletes on many aspects of life, are of great interest to schoolchildren and young athletes. So in June 2012, the leading biotlanists of the Russian national team were invited to the village of Balezino , who enthusiastically talked about their training regime and plans for the next season.
Competitions are a specific form of moral education of the younger generation. This specificity is determined by the fact that competitions are a form of sports activity. To compete is to compete with other people to achieve a certain result. The basic principle of rivalry among Russian athletes is the principle of fair and honest sports competition. In team competitions, the dependence of the success of the team on the success of each is clearly manifested. This dependence is easily recognized, which leads to the formation of a positive moral experience.
The specifically set goal, the significance of the tasks set for the athlete, the orientation towards the manifestation of the leading moral and volitional qualities are important conditions that determine the effectiveness of this form of moral education. The rules of the competition put the athlete in strictly defined conditions for wrestling with an opponent. They require not only discipline, honesty, self-control, but also respect for the opponent, for the judges, for the audience, the ability to show firmness of character in the struggle for the prestige of the team. Therefore, at competitions, special attention is paid to the behavior of athletes, their relationship with each other, with the coach, etc.
All forms of organizing physical exercises are specific forms of moral education of schoolchildren: circles, sections, morning exercises ..
The formation of high moral qualities of the personality of students is facilitated by such forms of sports and mass activities in which the students themselves act not only as participants, but also as their organizers. Here, many general pedagogical methods are used (beliefs, motives, accustoming, encouragement, censure, etc.), as well as those specific factors and ways of interaction on personality formation that are represented by physical culture and sports. In the formation of the rational foundations of behavior in the process of physical education, conversations on ethical topics, explanations and other ways of moral education play an important role. Directly during physical exercises, the specificity of this process obliges to look for especially capacious and laconic forms of educational influence by words. But no matter how perfect they are, it is impossible to fully solve the problems of moral enlightenment only within the framework of physical exercises themselves. Conversations and disputes on ethical topics, a detailed analysis of past or sports – training sessions and competitions with an assessment of ethical situations that have arisen in them, other special forms of moral education should be integral links in the systems of educational work of a specialist in physical education.
Physical culture and sports activity gives the desired educational effect in the conditions of pedagogically focused leadership. Providing it, a specialist in physical education also uses such ways as education through a moral example, through exercises – accustoming to ethically justified norms of behavior and through a system of regulated ethical relationships in the process of physical culture, sports activity.
Physical education has great opportunities for the formation of solid, ethical norms and behavior skills through exercise, accustoming. In the gap between word and deed, between moral commandments and their real embodiment, lies one of the common reasons for the insufficient effectiveness of education. The specificity of physical culture and sports activity is such that it inevitably confronts the students with the need to constantly and firmly adhere to practical behavioral norms, and, therefore, to develop appropriate behavioral traits (strictly observe the established regime of classes and the general regime of life, rules of behavior in the classroom, competition rules, etc. At the same time, it is essential that the mastery of skills and norms of behavior in the process of physical culture and especially sports activity are strictly tested by deeds in conditions of complicated interpersonal relations. So, in tense, emotionally saturated situations of sports competitions, both behavioral skills and associated personality traits are identified and tested for strength.
The effectiveness of methods of moral education increases if the following requirements are met:
– an individual approach to the upbringing of each student;
– taking into account the age of those involved in the selection of examples of tasks and the conditions for their implementation;
– evidence of the example used;
– reliance on the experience and feelings of pupils.
The moral consciousness of students is successfully formed when setting a socially significant goal and ways to achieve it.