Damage to the nervous system in diseases of the skull and spine

Tuberculous spondylitis Tuberculous spondylitis is the most severe and common form of osteoarticular tuberculosis. In most cases, tuberculosis decay affects the thoracic spine (about 60% of cases), the second place in frequency is the lumbar (about 25% of cases), and the third is the cervical and sacral parts. More often, caries damages the vertebral body; primary damage to… Read More »

Paget’s disease

Paget ‘s disease is a chronic systemic bone disease, but it is often more limited in nature. The origin of the disease remains unclear. Paget ‘s disease is considered to be senile, because its clinical symptoms in noticeable form usually appear at the age of 50-70 years, however, with a targeted x-ray examination, it is possible to identify its initial symptoms in middle… Read More »


Craniostenosis is a deformation of the skull caused by the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures in the early periods of life, when the growth and development of the brain is not yet complete. This delays the growth of the bones of the skull in a direction perpendicular to the closed suture. The causes of craniostenosis are… Read More »

Specific degenerative diseases of the spine

Osteochondrosis It is a degenerative change in the intervertebral disc. Age-related loss of fluids leads to a decrease in the height and strength of its fibrous tissues, as a result of which pseudospondylolisthesis of the mobile segment occurs . Sliding and rubbing movements accelerate the degenerative process. Etiology of osteochondrosis The disease develops mainly under the influence of improper static load… Read More »


At the heart of obesity is a violation of the balance of energy intake and expenditure towards the predominance of the first. It is manifested by excessive deposition of fat in the body, an increase in body weight, a violation of the metabolism and function of a number of systems and organs. Obesity is observed in… Read More »

Diagnosis of obesity

The diagnosis of primary obesity is established based on the available factor of overeating, eating foods rich in carbohydrates and fats, hypokinesia, a hereditary predisposition to obesity, indicators of the absolute amount of fat and the characteristic clinical symptoms of the disease. Differential diagnosis of obesity The differential diagnosis of primary obesity is carried out with… Read More »

Hypovitaminosis B2

Hypovitaminosis B2 is a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin B2 in the diet, its insufficient absorption from the intestines or intensive destruction and excretion from the body. It manifests itself as seborrheic dermatitis, rough scaly skin, swelling and soreness of the tongue, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, photophobia, redness and swelling of the lips, their peeling. With a prolonged… Read More »


Scurvy is a disease of the vitamin deficiency group that serves as a clinical manifestation of vitamin C deficiency. The main symptoms are bleeding and swelling of the gums, damage to the skin (dryness, petechiae on the extremities with a bluish tinge), bone and joint system (hemarthrosis, loosening of the teeth with their further loss) . The… Read More »


Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency caused by a deficiency of vitamin PP and tryptophan amino acids. The main symptoms are redness, peeling of the skin on the face and neck, hair loss, ulceration of the tongue, diarrhea, numbness and tingling in the extremities, paralysis, insomnia, weakness, distraction, decreased intellectual functions (dementia). The diagnosis is established on the basis… Read More »


Polyneuritis is a serious and dangerous disease associated with damage to the peripheral nervous system. Pathology is multiple and extensive. Polyneuritis is accompanied by multiple paresis, muscle weakness, decreased functional and sensitivity of the limbs. In the acute nature of the course of the disease, polyneuritis can be complicated. Inflammatory processes that spread to the central nervous system, significantly… Read More »