The striving for the ideal is inherent in man by nature. This is the basis of the next concept of education – physical perfection. The formation of the ideal of physical development and fitness took place historically, in accordance with the requirements of life that had developed at a certain point in time.
For physical perfection – the concept of physical education – the main indicators are:
- Good health. This criterion is based on the fact that only a physically healthy person will be able to quickly adapt to any conditions, including unfavorable conditions of life, work, everyday life, etc.
- Developed physique. The body of a physically developed person must correspond to certain proportions. Particular attention is paid to correct posture.
- High performance (general and special).
- Development of physical qualities.
- Possession of general motor skills and abilities, the ability to quickly master new movements.
Thus, a physically perfect person must be comprehensively and harmoniously developed, be healthy, have a beautiful body and have high efficiency.
Sport in human life
The next concept of physical education is usually taken out of the scope of physical education. Sport is competitions, special preparation for them, striving for high results, achievements and awards. On the one hand, the concept of physical education includes some sports related to movement and the performance of certain exercises. But on the other hand, all the actions performed are aimed at strengthening the health of the student, and not attaining any specific heights or receiving a reward. Therefore, physical education is considered separately from sports.
The concept of physical education among the methods used in the teaching process also includes competitions. They allow you to compare and contrast human capabilities. Sports competitions are always strictly regulated. They contain the conditions for the performance of certain exercises and assessment criteria specially developed for each specific sport. Preparation for the competition is carried out in the form of a special sports training.
Physical education of a child of the first year of life
The baby makes his first movements in the womb. With the birth of his physical activity only intensifies. At the same time, reflexes are manifested: grasping, crawling, walking . As the nervous and musculoskeletal system develops, the child takes possession of his body. And in order for motor development to occur in accordance with age, it is necessary to create conditions for the physical education of the baby. And it begins from the first days of the baby’s life.
The concept of physical education of children 1 year of age includes the following methods of influencing a child:
- Massage. In relation to a small child, such techniques are applied to the surface of his body as stroking, rubbing, kneading, light tapping, beating.
- Physical exercise (gymnastics). When they are performed, the musculoskeletal system is prepared for further actions: grabbing, throwing, crawling, walking, running.
Particular attention in the process of physical education of a baby is paid to massage. Its different types have a certain physiological effect on the body of the crumbs. For example, stroking helps to improve blood circulation, vasodilation, and relaxation. As a result, sleep becomes deeper, and performance is restored faster. If the child has no contraindications, starting from 1 month, physical exercises and massage in the complex are prescribed to him.
The characteristic of the concept of physical education involves the regular performance of actions in the learning process. This means that classes with the child should be carried out systematically, at the same time of day, preferably in the morning. Massage should be done before or alternated with exercise.
In the second and third years of life, physical education is connected – one of the forms of his education and upbringing. They are aimed at active development of motor skills, improvement of basic movements. This is crawling, rolling and throwing the ball, stepping over an obstacle, playing with adults.
Thus, from the first weeks of a child’s life, it is necessary to devote enough time to strengthening his body, developing movements and psyche.
Basic concepts of the theory of physical education of preschoolers
Climbing, running and walking, which only developed at an early age, continue to improve during the kindergarten period. After 3 years, the child may well perform the simplest exercises with objects in his hands or exercise on simulators. In order for him to develop physically, it is necessary to create all the conditions for this.
At preschool age, the child has access to exercises for coordination of movements, balance. With him you can play games where you need to throw and catch a ball, throw light objects. At this age, the set of exercises must include running, jumping on one and two legs, over an obstacle or from a small step.
One of the basic concepts of the theory of physical education is physical development, for the achievement of which it is necessary to stimulate the child’s need for exercise. The example of an adult plays an important role here. There is no need to prohibit the child from jumping and running.
The article considers the concepts of physical culture, sports, physical education, which are aimed at the comprehensive and harmonious development of a person and the improvement of his body. In the process of learning, his physical capabilities, working capacity, and social activity increase. Physical education should be practiced from early childhood, gradually increasing the load and creating conditions for the development of new skills.