Polyneuritis is a serious and dangerous disease associated with damage to the peripheral nervous system. Pathology is multiple and extensive. Polyneuritis is accompanied by multiple paresis, muscle weakness, decreased functional and sensitivity of the limbs. In the acute nature of the course of the disease, polyneuritis can be complicated. Inflammatory processes that spread to the central nervous system, significantly worsen the patient’s well-being.
Causes of the disease
Diagnosis of polyneuritis begins with the identification and identification of the causes of the disease. Infectious polyneuritis is most often caused by external mechanical or toxic effects. Particular attention when collecting an anamnesis and determining the clinical picture should be given to interaction with poisons – polyneuritis is often caused by poisoning of the body with mercury or lead. However, this is not the main reason for the development of pathology – potent antibiotics, the abuse of narcotic or alcoholic substances can also damage the peripheral nervous system and cause an uncontrolled spread of the disease. Severe bacterial or oncological diseases also cause the spread of polyneuritis, in which the peripheral nervous system loses its ability to function normally. Taking their own nerve fibers for dangerous foreign bodies, the body can begin to attack itself – as it manifests itselfautoimmune nature of polyneuritis.
Classification of Polyneuritis
Before starting treatment, it is necessary to identify not only the form (chronic or acute) of the disease, but also its type. Depending on the reasons that led to the spread of polyneuritis, different treatments are prescribed. Polyneuritis is divided into two broad categories – axonopathic (the nerve axon dies) and demyelination (the nerve membrane is destroyed). Further classification indicates the source of the disease: Infectious polyneuritis. It occurs with inflammatory processes in the peripheral nervous system. One of the most dangerous types of pathology, since it is characterized by an extensive lesion area and the death of many nerve fibers. Diphtheria polyneuritis. It occurs in 10-20% of children who have undergone diphtheria, with untimely diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Alcoholic polyneuritis. The inflammatory process is forced due to excessive consumption of alcoholic toxic substances. The constant flow of toxins and toxic substances accelerates the development of alcoholic polyneuritis. Arsenic polyneuritis. The result of poisoning of the body by arsenic. It does not have a chronic form, since the disease immediately becomes acute. Diabetic polyneuritis. The peripheral nerves of the face or limbs are damaged. Classification is not limited to the cause of the disease. As we mentioned earlier, an acute and chronic form of polyneuritis is distinguished. The acute form is one of the most dangerous manifestations of polyneuritis, it develops in a matter of hours or days. Most often, the acute form of the disease occurs against the background of a weakened immune system and an infectious disease. The chronic form of the disease progresses slowly and can be easily missed by both the patient and the attending physician. The disease is growing every day against the background of constant exposure to a provoking factor – alcohol, poisoning, poisoning, infection.
Symptoms of Polyneuritis
Polyneuritis is an extremely dangerous disease that threatens not only possible health problems, but also disability of the patient. In order to timely diagnose the disease, determine its classification and causes, you need to know the symptoms of polyneuritis: Muscle weakness, a constant feeling of tiredness and fatigue. Reduced sensitivity of the nerve endings of the limbs. In particular, the patient feels the loss of the natural sensitivity of the fingertips. Thinning of the skin on the arms and legs. Change skin color from natural to marbled white or cyanotic. Weakness of the nail plates, prolapse and fragility of the nails. Damage to peripheral nerves in the face. Reduced sensitivity of the sensory organs – eyes, ears, nose. Symptoms of polyneuritis become more pronounced, the more the disease progresses. At later stages, the peripheral nervous system is so affected that it becomes difficult for a person to control the limbs – weakened muscles practically do not obey the will of the patient. Walking is difficult, the foot begins to sag. When walking, a patient with advanced polyneuritis looks uncertain and awkward, raises his legs high and hardly rearranges them. Coordination and balance are disturbed – frequent falls are possible.
Diagnosis of polyneuritis
A specialized doctor can determine the presence or absence of such a serious disease in the early stages of the development of polyneuritis. An experienced neurologist can easily determine not only the presence or absence of a disease, but also its nature and classification. To do this, a number of clinical tests and medical studies are carried out: history taking and patient interviewing. Often, at this stage, the neurologist already has a clear idea of the patient’s illness – characteristic complaints and visible signs make it possible to determine the presence or absence of the disease. To confirm the results of the initial survey and examination, biochemical blood and urine tests are performed. The technician will check the fluids for toxic substances. The final stage of information collection is the diagnosis of endocrine and pancreas, liver and kidneys. In order to determine the degree of damage to the peripheral nervous system and determine the stage of polyneuritis, electromyography is used – a tool for determining the electrical conductivity of muscles. An oncologist is also involved in the diagnosis. With its help, a neurologist can differentiate polyneuritis and not confuse it with oncological diseases.
Treatment of polyneuritis
Polyneuritis is a dangerous disease, but at this stage in the development of medicine with a competent approach, it can be treated. The total recovery time of the body and rehabilitation of nerves is about 3 months, and the negative impact of the disease on the patient’s body stops 10 days after the start of treatment. General recommendations are as follows: The patient must observe bed rest and move as little as possible, regardless of the nature of the polyneuritis and the severity of the disease. This is due to the need to immobilize damaged segments of the body. Toxins that provoke the development of pathology are eliminated with the help of antidotes. The patient gets rid of the negative factors affecting the development of the disease, after which the polyneuritis stops its development. With infectious polyneuritis, treatment is due to medications. A diphtheria type of disease is treated with diphtheria serum. Regardless of the classification of polyneuritis, the initial stage includes medical therapy – anesthetics, metabolic acceleration, vitamin therapy and much more. After bed rest and transition to home recovery, polyneuritis is treated with a special rehabilitation regimen. It includes regular physical education, stimulating damaged nerve fibers of the extremities, a special diet, regular massage. Despite the fact that polyneuritis and polyneuropathies are quite dangerous diseases, they can be cured with timely medical attention. If the first symptoms of the disease develop, you should immediately visit a neurologist to avoid possible complications, as well as exclude provocative factors – alcohol, smoking, drugs, toxins like arsenic, lead or mercury. Procrastination threatens not only a possible disability, but also a fatal outcome – the danger of polyneuritis for normal life and human life cannot be underestimated.