Rowing is an Olympic water sport in which participants, while in a boat, use oars and their own strength to overcome the distance with their backs forward (unlike rowing and canoeing ).
The International Rowing Federation (FISA) (FR. Federation Internationale des Societes d’Aviron , FISA) is an association that is responsible for the development of rowing in the world, as well as the organization and conduct of international competitions.
The first official rowing competition took place in 1715 and was named the Doggett’s Coat and Badge Race after the organizer of the English actor Thomas Doggett . This race is still considered one of the most prestigious in the United Kingdom.
Later, the two oldest and most important regatta established in England – symbols of the British rowing, held today: Regatta “Oxford – Cambridge” under the name of The The Boat Race ( “Boat Race”), which began in 1829, and Henleyskaya Royal regatta ( the Henley Royal Regatta ), first held in 1839.
In 1718, by the decree of Peter I, the first rowing club in Russia “Nevsky Flot” was established. And since March 21, 1860, rowing in Russia has received official recognition as a sport.
Since 1900, rowing has been included in the program of the Olympic competitions.
Rowing Competition Rules
The rowing competition involves singles, twos, fours and eights rowers on light and heavy paired and swing boats.
First, the athletes participate in the preliminary stage, after which they advance to the semifinals, and then the top 6 crews advance to the final.
The race is held in calm water and in a straight line. Teams are allowed to move along other people’s paths, but on the condition that they do not interfere with other crews.
Rowing rules govern the weight of the athletes. For women, the maximum weight is 59 kg, but the average weight of the crew members is 57 kg, and 72.5 kg for men, 70 kg is the average weight for the crew.
The race begins with the command “two minutes”, which sounds at the moment when all boats are located in the starting box. This is followed by a roll call of the crews, which ends with the command “attention”. Some time after the command, a loud signal sounds and the race begins.
For competitions and for training athletes, an artificial reservoir is used – a rowing canal, the width of which reaches 200 m, where 125 m is the main water for rowing paths and 75 m is return water), and the length is ~ 4000 m (main water is 2200 m). Depth not less than 2 m.
Also for the competition are used straight sections of coastal waters, rivers or lakes without flow.
Types of rowing
- Doubles – rowing is performed with two oars;
- Swing – rowing is performed with one oar.
- One man;
- Two people;
- Four people;
- Eight people.
Competitions for the Olympic program are held in 14 classes:
- Loners – male and female;
- Doubles are paired – male and female;
- Double swing – male and female;
- Doubles paired light weight – male and female;
- Swing fours – light weight for men and men;
- Paired fours – male and female;
- Eights – male and female.
Inventory and equipment
Academic ships are sports narrow, elongated light boats with oarlocks (outlets) for oars and movable seats (banks).
Types of boats:
- training or amateur (such a boat is wider than a racing boat, with high sides);
- racing (narrow base, low sides).
Composite materials and epoxy resins are used to make boats.
There are no specific requirements for the design of boats, however, they are for technical characteristics:
- The footboard design should allow the rower to leave the boat hands-free in the shortest possible time in the event of a capsizing;
- The bow of the boat should be equipped with a white molded rubber ball and a holder for a weather vane;
- The minimum weight of the boat without oars and radio systems must be:
- 4+ (four steering) – 51 kg;
- 2x, 2 – (deuce paired and rudderless ) – 27 kg;
- 1x (single) – 14 kg;
- 2+ (two steering) – 32 kg;
- 4 – (four wheelless ) – 50 kg;
- 4x (four pair) – 52 kg;
- 8+ (eight) – 96 kg.
- The thickness of the blades of swing oars 3 mm from the edge along the entire perimeter must be at least 5 mm, and for paired oars 2 mm from the edge – at least 3 mm.
- During international competitions, the paddles of the oars must be painted in the national colors.
The Olympic Games are the most prestigious international rowing competitions, held every four years.
The Head of the Charles Regatta is the largest two-day regatta in the world. Held on the Charles River in the USA.
Henleyskaya Royal Regatta – an annual five-day regatta, which takes place in England, in the city of Henley -one Thames .
Oxford – Cambridge is a traditional, annual boat regatta on the Thames between teams of boat clubs from Oxford and Cambridge universities.
We have tried to cover the topic as fully as possible, so this information can be safely used in the preparation of messages, reports on physical education and essays on the topic “Rowing”.