Assessing the state of the modern pedagogical theory of education and humanistic practice, it can be noted that a specific didactic content, a set of tasks and exercises are developed in the physical, labor, mental, aesthetic education of a person. For moral education, this question is the most difficult. In pedagogy, there is, as it were, a “watershed” between the extensive material that fixes the moral norms and moral requirements of the educational process in learning, physical culture, sports, labor and other activities and the lack of knowledge about how, in what processes moral norms, knowledge, moral requirements of the teacher become the property of the individual. The main difficulty and main task of the moral education of the individual is to reveal the transition from knowledge, action to moral attitude, deed. Determination of pedagogical conditions and ways of forming moral relations of the individual and forms of their activation is one of the central problems of the theory of education. The core of the pedagogical views on physical education was the provision on the unity of the physical and spiritual development of a person with the decisive role of moral education. The following stages of the formation of moral behavior can be distinguished:
– the first stage – the athlete learns to accept the requirements imposed on him by the teacher, coach;
– the second stage – the athlete accepts the requirements of the teacher, the coach voluntarily, realizing his duties, but these requirements remain for him external stimuli of actions;
– the third stage – the moral requirements coming from the coach become personal, internal requirements for the athlete;
– the fourth stage – the athlete actively influences those around him, trying to change their behavior in accordance with his beliefs and spiritual ideals.
The most important indicator of the moral attitude to the training process is the discipline of a young athlete. The indicators of a high level of discipline in the sports section include the following aspects:
– young athletes’ understanding of the need for discipline;
– readiness and even the need to fulfill generally accepted requirements and rules of moral behavior;
– self-control over behavior;
– active struggle with the undisciplined actions of others.
Disciplined behavior leads to the formation of the most important personality trait of pupils, which is based on the desire and ability to manage their behavior in accordance with the norms and requirements of sports.
The mental foundations of this quality manifestation are volitional processes – the ability of young athletes to suppress their desires, to subordinate behavior to necessity. A high level of discipline in the classroom allows you to increase motor density, organization of attention, the process of improving physical qualities.
The reasons for the undisciplined behavior of pupils may be as follows:
– the lack of a clear system of organizing sports activities, this concerns, first of all, the preparation of a sports hall, a playground, including by the efforts of young athletes themselves;
– insufficient consideration by the coach of the psychological characteristics of young athletes of different ages;
– the dissatisfaction of young athletes with the relationship with the coach: they want to be treated like adults, accepted and not nagging about trifles. It should be noted that pupils’ dissatisfaction with their relationship with the coach is often associated with his subjectivity towards undisciplined athletes;
– shortcomings in the organization of educational and training work;
– impunity for violators of discipline.
The inability to overcome difficulties leads to a gap between the moral consciousness of a young athlete and his real behavior.
Another phenomenon is moral realism, when pupils judge the moral side of an act not by its motive, but by its result. Therefore, an act dictated by a moral impulse (a desire to help a friend), but ended unsuccessfully, is regarded by him as bad. This is also manifested in the fact that young athletes often straightforwardly perceive the coach’s demands to be honest and truthful, do not recognize any exceptions to the rules. Therefore, urging young athletes to be truthful, the coach must at the same time explain to them that not the whole truth should be publicly expressed, that it is necessary to spare the companion’s pride, while showing another moral quality – tact.
The following tasks of moral education must be set for athletes:
… To form the behavioral skills necessary to comply with moral rules, while reinforcing with a positive assessment even insignificant successes of pupils in moral behavior.
2. To form an adequate idea of a young athlete about his morality, bringing to his consciousness the discrepancies between his idea of himself as a moral model and his actual behavior. It is important at the same time to achieve the experience of the student of this discrepancy.
3. To develop diligence, interest in the results of sports training, enthusiasm for the training process. To do this, the coach must evaluate not only the results of the sports work of a young athlete, but also the efforts expended by him.
4. Teach young athletes to judge actions based on their motives, not just results.
5. To develop in them the need to pay attention to the experiences of other people, to show sympathy for these experiences.
6. Pay special attention to the organization of the collective life of young athletes, the development of their right relationships.
In the moral education of adolescent athletes, it should be borne in mind that their needs and interests differ from the needs and interests of children.